What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, is quickly growing in popularity and is headed toward mainstream acceptance. CBD oil is finding its way into a variety of products, from tinctures and drops to CBD-infused edibles and CBD balms, as well as a wide range of cosmetics.
History of CBD Oil
The earliest written record of the use of cannabis appears in ancient China around 6000 B.C., shortly after human civilization arose, but the most direct evidence of the use of cannabis for wellness began to appear around 2700 B.C.
In 2737 B.C., as recorded in the first editions of the Pen Ts’ao Ching, Chinese emperor Shen-Nung was using cannabis in topical ointments and teas. As time went on and human civilization progressed, writings espousing the benefits of hemp began to appear in pharmacopeias across Asia. The use of cannabis extracts appeared in the second century B.C. in the writing of Hua Tuo.
Around A.D. 77, the Romans began using hemp extensively in the healing arts. In his writings, a scholar by the name of Pliny the Elder claimed that cannabis extract was helpful for relieving discomfort.
In India, cannabis was considered a sacred plant gifted by the gods. The Atharvaveda was considered a storehouse of knowledge that was useful for everyday life. This manuscript details the use of cannabis flowers and seeds in a variety of balms and tinctures.
Cannabis has even been found buried in the tombs of Ancient Greeks and Egyptians who also notated formulations for cannabis remedies.
By the sixteenth century, cannabis was being cultivated all over Europe. Hemp was so valuable to society at that time that, in 1533, Henry VIII required all farmers to grow hemp.
Many physicians of the age, such as Garcia de Orta and Li Shih-Chen, were documenting the use of hemp extract as a support for appetite and for maintaining wellness.
In the 1600s, hemp cultivation came to North American colonies. The colony of Virginia even created laws which mandated the cultivation of hemp by farmers. Similar laws were passed in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Hemp seeds were even considered legal tender and used to pay for goods and services in Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland.
A popular medical text of the time called, “Anatomy of Melancholy,” written by Robert Burton, noted that hemp extract was helpful in supporting mood.
By the eighteenth century, hemp’s uses were documented in “The New England Dispensatory” and “Edinburgh New Dispensatory”— two highly respected pharmacopeias of the day.
In the early 20th century, medicines such as opioids began to be developed. The use of cannabis-based preparations began to decline. However, many medications were developed which combined cannabis with other pharmaceuticals in everything from cough syrup to sleep aids.
By the late 1930s, the war on cannabis erupted, and the cultivation of cannabis became illegal. In 1970, possession of any form of cannabis was banned by the Controlled Substances Act, which listed cannabis — including both hemp and marijuana — as Schedule I substances with no medicinal benefits and a high risk of dependence.
In the late 1960s the mysteries of cannabinoids, including CBD, began to unfold as researchers discovered the role of the human endocannabinoid system in maintaining good health. We’ll discuss this in more detail shortly.
As the 1970s progressed, however, cannabis once again began being used for medical treatment. A quarter of a century later, in 1996, the state of California legalized the use of cannabis for treatment of certain medical conditions, despite the federal ban.
Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of research into the benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids. CBD has been quickly gaining acceptance in the U.S. as a result of media coverage by respected health experts such as Dr. Sanjay Gupta. The message of CBD’s effects is beginning to reach the masses.
Today, CBD oil is available to most people in the United States and research into CBD’s effects on the human body has ramped up substantially. Modern technology has provided methods of refining and isolating CBD and even increasing the bioavailability of CBD oil through technologies such as nanoemulsions, which make CBD water-soluble and increase its potency.
The demand for CBD is growing so quickly that sales are expected to surpass $1 billion by 2020.
CBD oil is a natural oil which is extracted from the flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is used by people all over the world for a variety of purposes.
Broad spectrum CBD oil contains a variety of active compounds such as cannabinoids and terpenes, which we will discuss in greater detail in Chapter 2. In each other’s presence, these compounds work even better.
Depending on the formulation of a product, it may contain other beneficial components such as omega fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals.
Cannabis is one of a genus of plants known as Cannabaceae. There are two main species of cannabis that are cultivated for human consumption, namely Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa.
Sativa plants are taller and produce more fiber and are therefore the species from which hemp cultivation arose. Indica plants are shorter and bushier and less suitable for farming for either industrial purposes or for production of food, but well-suited for producing medical marijuana.
What are the Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana
Marijuana is high in the psychoactive compound THC, or delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound in marijuana that causes a high.
Marijuana is rightly considered to be a “drug.” It is cultivated mainly for medicinal and “recreational” purposes. Both indica and sativa strains, as well as hybrids of the two, are used to produce marijuana.
The United States federal government considers marijuana to be a Class I controlled substance. However, many U.S. states have instituted legislation to regulate its cultivation and allow its use as medicine. Some states have also legalized marijuana for recreational use.
Hemp is not marijuana. Although hemp does contain some cannabinoids, it has negligible amounts of THC. In fact, in order to be legally cultivated, hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC. Hemp is also grown as an industrial crop for the use of fibers in textiles and even building materials. Most industrial hemp is grown for its fiber and contains relatively small concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes, so it is not the most desirable source of CBD oil.
While many of the CBD products on the market are produced from this kind of industrial hemp, the CBD oil in Transcend Alchemy products is made from a CBD-rich strain known as PCR hemp. PCR is short for phytocannabinoid rich — it contains as much as ten times the concentration of CBD as generic industrial hemp and only negligible amounts of THC. It does not cause a high.
Types of CBD Oil
When the essential oils of the hemp plant are first extracted, the resulting product is considered raw hemp extract. This raw extract can be put through a series of filtration and distillation processes to remove unwanted compounds, such as waxes and chlorophyll, and produce various classes of oils differing in purity and CBD content. These refined oils are referred to as CBD concentrate or CBD distillate.
Earlier we mentioned another class of compounds called terpenes. Raw PCR hemp extract contains terpenes as well as other cannabinoid compounds similar to CBD. Because it retains the natural balance of cannabinoids and terpenes found in the original plant, we refer to these products as full spectrum oils.
Broad spectrum CBD oil is very similar to a full spectrum oil. Full spectrum CBD oil, as we mentioned, retains the original concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes found in raw PCR hemp extract. Broad spectrum CBD oil also contains these concentrations of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes but has all trace amounts of THC extracted. This is ideal for those who want absolutely no THC in their CBD products.
CBD can also be isolated and purified. Pure CBD is known in the industry as CBD isolate. In their pure form, and at room temperature, cannabinoids are solid crystals. Purified cannabinoids are colorless and odorless. CBD isolate can be consumed directly or used as an additive in other preparations such as edibles and beverages; however, it is devoid of the beneficial terpenes and other cannabinoids found naturally in the plant.
Another term you may hear is CBD-rich oil. This term is generally used to label a CBD oil which has gone through some initial filtration and distillation steps to remove unwanted compounds such as chlorophyll and waxes. The resulting product has a higher concentration of CBD than the raw extract, hence the term CBD-rich oil.
The term CBD-infused can be used to describe either a product which has been infused with purified CBD isolate or a product which has been infused with a CBD-rich, full spectrum or broad spectrum concentrate. A properly labeled product will specify which ingredients were used. If the ingredients include “CBD isolate,” then the product is not full spectrum. If the ingredients include “CBD-rich hemp oil (or extract)” or “full/broad spectrum CBD oil,” then obviously you’re getting a full/broad spectrum product. It’s important to know which is in a product because they produce different effects.
Research into CBD's Benefits
In just over a half century, cannabinoids have gone from obscurity to the subject of intense research.
The secrets of cannabinoids are vast and they run deep. After many years of study, still very little is known about how cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system as well as other complex organs and systems in our bodies.
But one thing is certain — CBD does have an effect on these complex systems that themselves are not fully understood. Determining the exact mechanisms that are producing CBD’s vast array of effects might take many more decades.
In the meantime, much research is underway, and many studies about CBD’s effects on the human body have already been published.
In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the reasons why CBD is being studied.
History of CBD Research
In 1968, a report written by the UK government’s Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence stated that “the long-term consumption of cannabis in moderate doses has no harmful effects…Cannabis is less dangerous than the opiates, amphetamines and barbiturates, and also less dangerous than alcohol…” That same year, the University of Mississippi was entrusted to grow marijuana for research by the predecessor agency to the DEA.
In a court battle in 1976, a federal judge ruled that a plaintiff in a lawsuit against the government was using marijuana out of “medical necessity,” making the plaintiff, Robert Randall, the first legal medical cannabis patient.
In 1978, as a direct result of the lawsuit, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) began supplying cannabis to several patients whose physicians applied for and received “compassionate use” rights under Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) rules. Most of the medical research done on cannabis has taken place in the 40 years since 1978.
The human endocannabinoid system was discovered in steps. In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was found in the brain of a rat. In 1992, researcher Raphael Mechoulam and NIMH researchers William Devane and Dr. Lumir Hanus discovered the first endocannabinoid. These discoveries resulted in a wave of new studies into the effects of cannabinoids.
In 1993, the American Medical Student Association unanimously endorsed a statement calling for the down-scheduling of cannabis to Schedule 2. Since that time and based on reams of data, there have been scores of attempts to pressure the federal government to relent on this matter. So far none have been successful.
Let’s now take a look at some of the research that has been done in the past few decades into the mechanisms and effects of cannabinoids and the ECS.
What We’ve Learned About CBD
CBD is commonly used to support emotional stability. Research shows that CBD has an effect on levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, which we mentioned earlier. Anandamide is produced by the nervous system to stimulate the uptake of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is often referred to as the “happy molecule” because of its ability to improve mood.
When your mood is low, you might be dealing with a low amount of serotonin. An increase in serotonin can correspond to an increase in feelings of wellbeing. It all goes back to the endocannabinoid system — a balanced ECS is a happy ECS.
Another common use for CBD oil is to help normal healthy sleep cycles. It’s no secret that a rough sleep usually results in a bad mood the next day, and nobody wants that. Taking CBD before bed may help you roll out of bed feeling fresh and energized the next day.
Using CBD Oil
In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the methods by which CBD is used. We’ll discuss some of the factors involved in determining serving sizes. We’ll also look at the strengths and drawbacks of each method and discuss which methods are better for different situations.
Bioavailability of CBD
Not all methods for using CBD are equal. Their effectiveness depends not only on the method of consumption and the ingredients in the product, but also on the bioavailability of the CBD afforded by each method.
The bioavailability of any active compound is the percentage of a given serving that ends up being available for your body to use.
In the case of CBD oil, the active ingredients include both cannabinoids and terpenes. However, for the sake of discussion, we’ll talk only about the bioavailability of CBD itself.
A bioavailability of 100% would signify that 100% of the CBD in the product is available to your body. The only way to achieve 100% bioavailability is through intravenous administration — meaning injection directly into the bloodstream.
Every other method of consumption will result in some percentage of the CBD becoming unavailable to the body for various reasons, such as becoming trapped in fatty tissues or metabolized (broken down) before it has a chance to enter the bloodstream.
Each method of CBD oil consumption has a particular range of bioavailability. We’ll discuss these factors next and will also touch on them when discussing the benefits and drawbacks of each method.
Bioavailability of CBD Tinctures
A tincture is a liquid — usually an oil or an alcohol base — which has been infused with CBD oil. CBD oil tinctures are taken by mouth. When taken using this method, the CBD in the tincture can be absorbed pretty easily.
It is generally assumed that the bioavailability of CBD in tinctures is twice that of edibles — anywhere from 10 to 40%.
CBD Oil Serving Suggestions
As with bioavailability and time to take effect, the ideal serving of CBD depends on a variety of factors including the product being used, the concentration of the CBD in the product, genetic makeup, sex, weight and so on.
Some CBD products list a suggested serving size. However, without taking into account all of the variables, the recommended serving size might be far too low or possibly even too high. In particular, the serving size will vary greatly depending on why it’s being used.
A serving that is appropriate for one product might be much different than that of a similar product. This is because various CBD oil products contain varying amounts of CBD. Whereas one product might contain 10mg of CBD per serving, another might contain 50mg per serving.
The most important factor to be considered, however, is that both serving size and duration of use depend largely on the reason the individual is using it. One person might simply be using CBD to support general wellness while another might be using CBD to help maintain a good night’s rest.
Another factor to be considered is whether or not the product being used contains a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD oil with terpenes. Due to the entourage effect, these types of products reportedly work more effectively than just CBD alone.
Given all of the above-listed factors, determining your ideal serving requires some thinking. Taking too little will not produce the desired effect and will be a waste of time and money. Alternatively, taking more than you need may not provide additional benefits. It will take some experimentation to determine an ideal serving for a particular person.
General Guidelines for Using CBD Oil
Stick With One Product
It’s a good idea to put some thought into which product you’re going to use and stick with that product for a while. This allows you to gauge the effects of that particular product. If you switch back and forth between different products, determining a serving amount will be much harder.
Start With a Low Serving Size
When you first begin using CBD oil, it’s a good idea to start with a low serving size. This gives you a chance to determine your body’s reaction to CBD. One option is to start with 1mg of CBD for every 20 pounds of weight. Using this rule, someone weighing 100 pounds should start with 5 milligrams, while someone weighing over 200 pounds can start with 10 milligrams, and so on.
Start Before Bedtime
When first using CBD oil, it’s best to start at night — about an hour before bedtime. That way, if CBD has a tendency to make you drowsy, you’re not dragging during the daytime. It’s uncommon for a low serving size of CBD to cause drowsiness, but it’s good to be sure. If you have no issues, then take another serving in the morning. If CBD oil does make you sleepy, then take it at night. Often CBD oil is used to support both nighttime sleep and daytime focus, in which case it can be taken as needed throughout the day.
Increase Serving Size Slowly
If all goes well but you have not achieved your desired results, you can try doubling your servings. Each time you increase your serving size, take a few days to make note of how your body feels.
Ways to Take CBD Oil
Let’s now take a look at some of the ways to take CBD oil and the pros and cons of each, in order to help you to determine which product, or products, are right for you.
Some of the factors that should be considered when determining which product is ideal for you are your lifestyle, the reasons you’re using CBD oil, the time to take effect and the bioavailability of the method.
In regards to lifestyle, some products are more convenient than others, some products travel better than others and some products are simply more enjoyable to use than others. Capsules are preferred for traveling, for instance. There’s nothing to drop and break or spill.
Certain methods are better for certain uses. For example, if you’re using CBD to support skin health, you can get it directly by using a topical product. If you’re using a CBD product to support a good night’s rest, a special formulation such as CBD Softgels with Melatonin could be more beneficial than regular softgels.
As mentioned, various methods of use require different amounts of time to take effect. For example, edibles can take upwards of an hour or more to take effect, whereas inhalation methods are virtually instantaneous.
Bioavailability, as we pointed out earlier, is the amount of CBD that actually makes its way into your bloodstream. If time is not a consideration, your main consideration should be value. CBD is not inexpensive like products such as vitamins and minerals. You definitely want to try to maximize the value you get for your money. If a product has only 10% bioavailability, you’re essentially paying five times more for your CBD than if you used a product which has a 50% bioavailability.
Another consideration is how accurate you would like to be with your servings. It’s easy to gauge a serving when you’re taking capsules, for example, but much harder to gauge serving size when vaping since it depends on factors such as how much you inhale and how deeply you inhale it.
CBD Oil Capsules
CBD oil capsules are generally delivered orally. There are cases where you might want to puncture a capsule for use on the skin, but for the most part, this is an orally administered product.
Capsules are made with gelatin, which melts within minutes in your stomach and delivers the entire serving of CBD oil. This means that none of it will get absorbed into the tissues in your mouth or throat. And, depending on whether or not you take them with food, very little is likely to make its way through the rest of your digestive system.
Transcend Alchemy products softgels are formulated using a patent-pending water-soluble nanoemulsion technology which encapsulates the active compounds in nano-sized emulsions. The average size of nanoemulsion CBD oil droplets is between 4 and 200 times smaller than the industry standard. This smaller size leads to much higher absorption in the blood and, therefore, results in extremely high bioavailability. Because of this, less nanoemulsion CBD oil is needed to produce the same results as regular CBD oil.
Pros and Cons of Capsules
As we mentioned, capsules, because they dissolve quickly, will deliver a serving of CBD directly into your stomach.
Capsules are also very convenient and easy to use with no mess, and they also allow for exact serving sizes. If a CBD softgels capsule contains 25 milligrams of CBD, assuming you’re using a reputable manufacturer with good production methods, you know you’re getting a serving of 25 milligrams of CBD.
One downside of capsules is that they take longer to feel the effects. Also as mentioned, when taken on an empty stomach very little of the CBD will make its way into your body as most of it will be directly absorbed into the lining of your stomach. But this is easily avoidable by taking the capsule with food.
It’s also important to note here that capsules that do not use nanoemulsions have far lower bioavailability than those that do contain nanoemulsions.
CBD-infused topicals include skin creams, balms, salves and oils. Once again, these products can be infused with pure CBD, or they can contain a PCR CBD oil. The same rule applies — the products with the full or broad spectrum oils will contain other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes.
Topicals often have a variety of additional beneficial ingredients meant to contribute to the overall effects. For example, skin creams may contain moisturizers, vitamin E, collagen and so on. Pain creams may contain ingredients meant to help the product penetrate deeper into tissues and aid in pain relief. Salves may contain other soothing and healing ingredients such as aloe.
Pros and Cons of Topicals
Topicals (such as CBD Salve) are great for use on a particular area of skin or underlying muscles and joints. They deliver the CBD and other beneficial ingredients directly where they can do the most good.
However, they take some time to apply and can be a little messy. This may not be a concern for you if you use these kinds of products regularly.
Another thing to consider is that, when taken internally either orally or inhaled, CBD will make its way to all areas of your body, including your skin. If overall skin health is your goal, you may just opt for one of those other applications rather than having to apply a topical all over your skin.
Which brings up a side note — when receiving a massage, generally an oil is used on the entire body. This is a great opportunity to give your skin some extra love by adding some CBD oil to your massage oil.
Getting Started With CBD Oil
Identifying a Good Company
There are a few factors that need to be considered when searching for a company that makes high-quality CBD oil products. These include the source and variety of hemp, the method of extraction used to produce the raw hemp extract, whether or not the company uses nanoemulsion technology, and the quality of the other ingredients in the products they offer.
The good news is that a reputable company will gladly provide this information. If it’s not touted on their website, then you can use their contact form to inquire about their hemp source, extraction method and the source of other ingredients. If a company will not provide you with this information, then simply rule them out. There are plenty of respectable, high-quality CBD oil makers out there.
Preferred Hemp Sources
Hemp is farmed all over the world. The U.S. is only recently starting to rebuild its hemp industry after a century of prohibition. However, the U.S. produces some of the finest quality cannabis and hemp products in the world.
It’s important to understand that not all hemp is created equal. Industrial hemp is primarily grown for its seeds and fibers and is not bred to produce high levels of cannabinoids and terpenes. PCR hemp, on the other hand, was specifically cultivated to be rich in cannabinoids and terpenes.
In order for a CBD product that is made from industrial hemp to contain the same concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes as CBD oil made from PCR hemp, industrial hemp CBD must be further refined, removing or destroying many of the naturally occurring beneficial compounds.
If a manufacturer specifies that their CBD was extracted from industrial hemp, then it’s safe to assume that the product is either lower in CBD and terpenes than a product made with PCR hemp, or has been further processed and has lost some of its natural essence. Finding a company whose products are made with PCR hemp is highly desirable.
The lowest quality CBD oil products are usually produced in Asian countries such as China, where quality standards are far lower. CBD oil products produced in China are often made from strains of industrial hemp which are not rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. They are often extracted using cheaper methods that are harsh and can actually destroy cannabinoids and terpenes. They may contain toxic pesticides which are illegal in the U.S. or may be contaminated with molds and other biological toxins.
Quality of Other Ingredients
Although raw and refined pure hemp extract is available, the vast majority of CBD oil products contain additional ingredients such as vegetable oils or other essential oils.
All the rules mentioned above apply here. Products produced in the U.S. are preferred. Products produced in Western Europe may also be of high quality, and product made elsewhere are quite often of lower quality.
The ingredients used can also be telling when determining whether a company is trying to cut corners. Oils such as hemp seed oil, coconut oil and almond oil are generally healthy and of high quality. If a product contains ingredients that you can’t pronounce or that sound like chemicals, then the manufacturer is probably trying to cut corners.
For example, a product known as polyethylene glycol is often used in CBD vape oils. This is the same stuff found in your car’s radiator. Although it has been approved for consumption by the FDA, there is evidence that it may irritate the lungs.
One exception to the can’t pronounce rule is an oil known as MCT oil. MCT stands for medium chain triglycerides. MCT oil is a natural product made from coconut oil. Coconut oil contains both medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Triglycerides, although sounding like a type of chemical, are simply the main constituent of human body fat. Without going into a biology lesson, let it suffice to say that MCTs are easier for the body to process than raw coconut oil.
There are other exceptions to the rule. When in doubt just do an internet search on the ingredients in question and you’ll usually be able to determine fairly quickly whether or not a particular ingredient is safe and healthy.
Another factor to consider is third-party lab testing. Most serious manufactures will send their products out to testing labs to determine whether or not they contain any contaminants and also to measure the levels of cannabinoids in the product.
Because different strains and crops produce different levels of CBD, CBD oil can vary in potency from one batch to another. Any good manufacturers will want to know exactly how much CBD is in their products.
Another thing that’s extremely important to know is whether the product contains THC. THC use may have serious consequences, so you should know whether your CBD product contains THC and in what amounts.
Many top manufacturers will provide the lab reports for the exact batch of products being sold. If one of the makers you are considering does offer this information, give them extra points.
CBD Oil Health Claims
This is worth touching on. Many companies will put CBD products on the market and make serious health claims about their product. These claims are not supported by the levels of scientific evidence that the FDA requires. These claims are a strong sign that a company is exaggerating what its product can do. Avoid those products.
Finding a Trusted Manufacturer
Another way to narrow down your list of CBD oil makers is simply to do some internet research on CBD companies themselves. You’ll notice that some brand names will consistently be portrayed in a good light, while others might have an overabundance of bad reviews.
There are some smaller, more obscure companies which produce very high-quality CBD but may not have much in the way of reviews. Don’t necessarily rule them out. Use the methods above to determine if they will make the cut.
As we mentioned above, products produced in areas of the world other than the U.S. or Western Europe are usually of lower quality. There are plenty of great U.S. CBD oil producers to choose from, so it’s best to stick with U.S.-made products.
A Word On the Dangers of Synthetic Cannabinoids
You may have heard on the news about some people in Utah becoming seriously ill as a result of using CBD products which contained synthetic CBD — that is CBD produced in a lab instead of in a hemp plant. We can’t stress enough how dangerous these products are. Stay away from them at all costs.
To wrap things up, let’s summarize the important points that you should take away from this document.
It’s important to have some goals before you begin using CBD oil. For example, you may not be getting enough sleep, or you may be experiencing discomfort after working out. Determine what effects you’re hoping to get from CBD oil so that you can make a decision as to whether or not it’s working for you.
Determine Your Serving
If you’re taking CBD oil for health maintenance, you should be taking lower servings of CBD. Anything over 50 milligrams a day may be more than you need. You may only need 25 milligrams or less per day.
However, you may be using CBD for a reason other than wellness support and need a greater serving. Or you may be taking medications with which CBD will interact. There may be other considerations. You really need to discuss your decision with a qualified medical professional who is well-versed in the use of CBD in order to determine your ideal serving.
Choose a Good Company and Stick With Them
Finding the right product for you from a high-quality maker is paramount. Once you choose a trusted brand and a particular product, stick with it for a while so that you can truly gauge its effectiveness.
We hope that you’ll take a good look at Transcend Alchemy and consider us as your preferred source for high-quality CBD oil products. We use only PCR hemp to produce our CBD oil. We use only phytocannabinoid-rich oils in our products, extracted using supercritical CO2. Our capsules, CBD Energy Drink Mix and dog treats are made using water-soluble hemp extract powder, which gives these products a higher bioavailability than that of standard products. We use a patented process to extract all residual THC from our products, providing a THC-free product. And we add only the highest quality ingredients to our products. Finally, all of our products undergo rigorous testing to assure they are free from any kind of contamination and have accurate CBD levels.